Saturday, July 25, 2020
Things to Do On Your Birthday Alone Social Anxiety Disorder Coping Print 10 Things to Do on Your Birthday Alone By Arlin Cuncic Arlin Cuncic, MA, is the author of Therapy in Focus: What to Expect from CBT for Social Anxiety Disorder and 7 Weeks to Reduce Anxiety. Learn about our editorial policy Arlin Cuncic Reviewed by Reviewed by Amy Morin, LCSW on July 01, 2019 facebook twitter instagram Amy Morin, LCSW, is a psychotherapist, author of the bestselling book 13 Things Mentally Strong People Dont Do, and a highly sought-after speaker. Learn about our Wellness Board Amy Morin, LCSW Updated on October 10, 2019 More in Social Anxiety Disorder Coping Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment and Therapy Work and School Related Conditions Finding things to do on your birthday alone might leave you feeling lonely. Birthdays are generally fun when you are a child. As you grow older, birthdays become a nuisance for some in that they are a reminder that you are getting older. For people who live with social anxiety disorder (SAD), they can also be a reminder of the difficulty that you have with social situations.?? On the other hand, if youve never enjoyed birthdays, this day of the year may bring back bad memories. As a way of starting a new tradition, even if you find yourself alone on your birthday this year, try to make a special day for you?. If you start planning now, you will find it is not that hard. Verywell / Nusha Ashjaee 1. Start Fresh Use this opportunity to start fresh in some area of your life. Go the traditional route and do a makeover on your outside: that might mean a new haircut, new outfit, or even something a little riskier like a tattoo. Choose styles that give you confidence and a new outlook. Or, go the less traditional route, and treat yourself to an internal makeover: read a self-improvement book, take a workshop, or start writing in a journal. Read books to work on coping with social anxiety so that you will not be alone on future birthdays. 2. Create Something Even if no one is coming over, you can still have a birthday cake. If youre not into baking, buy a store-made version. However, if you really want to enjoy your day, dont take this shortcut. Take your time and enjoy the process of baking a cake. Feel proud of what you have accomplished. Share leftovers with a neighbor and consider it an opportunity to make a new friend. 3. Be Generous Toward Yourself If you arent expecting anyone to give you gifts, treat yourself to something new. Choose a gift that might help you with your social anxiety such as chamomile tea, or buy an item for your home/dorm/bedroom to spruce it up. 4. Exercise Outdoors Exercise helps to clear your mind and hiking outdoors gives you a chance to connect with nature. Get outside and go for a hike, walk around your neighborhood, or a stroll along the beach (if you are so lucky to live near one). Feel proud about spending your birthday out of the house and being proactive about your physical and mental health. Bring your dog, if you have one, and let his natural joy and curiosity lead the way. 5. Take in a Movie Treat yourself to a night out at the movies even if you will be going alone. Lift your spirits with a comedy. Go at a time when you know the theater is likely to be full. Laugh out loud and dont worry what others think. Consider it a behavioral experiment to see whether people are really paying as much attention to you as you think that they are. 6. Volunteer Your Time Consider offering your services as a volunteer. Spend time chatting with people at a retirement or nursing home or offer to walk dogs at an animal shelter. You might even make new friends and become a regular volunteer. This is a perfect way to challenge your social anxiety and build your social skills. Be sure to call in advance to learn about any requirements prior to helping out. 7. Read a Book Your birthday is the perfect time to sit down with a book youve been dying to read. Start that novel or non-fiction book you have had on your list. Curl up with a good book and you might be surprised how quickly the day passes. You could even take this a step further and read a self-help book to work on overcoming your social anxiety. 8. Go About Your Routine Make your birthday just like any other day. Go about your usual routine. Dont mention to anyone that it is your birthday. This strategy works best if you are not much into birthday celebrations anyway. 9. Plan a Party for Next Year Start thinking about next year if you dont want to be alone on your birthday again. Are there relatives you could visit or friends that you could invite over for dinner? Take the year to make new connections so that you dont find yourself alone again this time next year. 10. Be Appreciative Birthdays are a reminder of how much time has passed and potentially how much time we have left. Take the time to appreciate the positive things in your life, even if you are alone on your birthday. If you have a roof over your head, food on the table, access to education, and running water, you are actually ahead of a good portion of the worlds population. Over time, this type of gratitude will become a habit and will serve you well in improving all aspects of your life. How to Cultivate Gratitude A Word From Verywell Occasionally finding yourself alone on your birthday should not be cause for concern. However, if this pattern repeats every year, and it is distressing for you, consider whether reaching out for help might be a better option. If severe social anxiety prevents you from making and keeping friends, treatments such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and medication may help.??
Friday, May 22, 2020
1.1 Explain what is meant by. Equality Equality is treating people fairly and making sure that everyone is given a fair chance and that their individual needs are met. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s about giving all sections of the community equal access to employment, education and other services that are provided whilst valuing and respecting them. Recognising that different sections of the community require specific measures to make sure they receive equality. Recognising how and why some groups are underrepresented and knowing what to do about it. Taking positive action to assist individuals where this is appropriate. Diversity Diversity means to have a variety of people from all minority groups represented in the community or setting. It isÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦These outcomes from discrimination might have long term effects on the childÃ¢â¬â¢s social, emotional and educational growth. The Family: Discrimination can affect the family socially, emotionally and financially if they are not supported by the school or setting the child is in. Emotionally and socially parents become defensive against any negative reaction to their child and are over protective. This can result in them feeling isolated, alone and paranoid whenever they take their child into the public eye. Often parents become suspicious of anyone who asks any questions about their children. Financially they might not know what benefits they are entitled to so will not enquire. The Settings: Discrimination can make an educational or any setting a difficult place for the child or young person to live in. All settings must have policies in place to deal with all forms of discrimination. The school or setting must make the child and family who are the victims feel supported at all times. They should act quickly and professionally and deal with discrimination as per government guidelines. The Perpetrators: The effects on the perpetrators can be both positive and negative depending on the reason they discriminated. Mostly people discriminate because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand why that child or young person is different and canÃ¢â¬â¢t deal with the difference. If the perpetrator is a child or young person then they could be dealtShow MoreRelatedEquality Diversity and Inclusion1616 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDonna Pitt Unit 204 Ã¢â¬â Equality, diversity and inclusion in work with children and young people Assignment 2 In my opinion living in a diverse society, along with understanding and knowledge is a positive route to acceptance on a variety of levels. When looking at my own life values and experiences I feel that as a person I donÃ¢â¬â¢t have prejudices and discrimination, however dependant on circumstances and peers I may on occasion say something deemed to be a prejudice. However the audience I haveRead MoreEquality, Diversity and Inclusion.1136 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesExplain what is meant by: a) Diversity- Diversity is about valuing individual difference. So diversity is much more than just a new word for equality. A diversity approach aims to recognise, value and manage difference to enable all employees to contribute and realise their full potential. Diversity challenges us to recognise and value all sorts of differences in order to make our environment a better place for everyone to work b) Equality- Equality is about making sure people are treatedRead MoreChampion equality, diversity and inclusion1712 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesChampion equality, diversity and inclusion Ã Ã Ã 1.1 Explain the models of practice that underpin equality, diversity and inclusion in own area of responsibility. Equality is to treat all as individuals; to respect race, disability, age, gender, religion, beliefs ,culture and sexual orientation. For all to be open to opportunities, to be treated fairly and respectfully, have rights and equal status in society and for all to reach their full potential. Diversity is to value that we are all uniqueRead More2.4. Diversity, Equality and Inclusion3667 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesÃ¯ » ¿TDA Unit 204 Equality, diversity inclusion in work with children young people [1.1].In your setting, there is a range of policies which formally sets out guidelines and procedures for ensuring equality. The policies must take into account the rights of all individuals and groups within the school as well as considering the ways policies work to ensure equality, inclusion. Policies also pay regards to the values and practice, which are part of all aspect of school life.Ã United NationÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreDescribe Diversity, Equality, Inclusion and Participation857 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Diversity Diversity refers to our differences such as culture, beliefs, values, views and life experiences. The concept of diversity is to accept, respect and embrace our differences. When people with these differences unite and share the same group or organization we see a diverse environment. Working in a childcare setting, we have the potential to work with an abundance of diversity. This can be very rewarding but can also pose challenges. Positively, we have the opportunity to promoteRead MoreEquality, Diversity and Inclusion in Work with Children1275 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesUnit 204 Outcome 3 What is meant by Inclusive and Inclusion Practice? Inclusive practice is identifying and understanding any barriers that are stopping children from completing the activity. We have to make sure that whatever the childÃ¢â¬â¢s background they are able to fully join in with everything within the school. This will make the children feel valued and have a sense of belonging. Inclusion does not mean that we view each other the same or provide the same work, it is about making sure weRead MoreDiversity, Inclusion, And Equality Within The World1514 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesproblems with diversity, inclusion, and equality within their ranks. The hyper-masculine culture that has been at the core of many military values has facilitated a perspective that excludes certain populations. Women of all backgrounds as well as gay men have struggled through the years for their right to service. This essay serves to explore the struggles as well as progress the Australian Defense Force has facilitated with its LGBTQ officers, and to analyze the current state of equality and inclusionRead MoreEssay on Champion Equality Diversity and Inclusion3510 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesÃ¯ » ¿HARROW COLLEGE HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE QCF: Level 5 Diploma in Leadership for Health and Social Care and Children and Young PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Services (England Unit CU 2943 Champion Equality, Diversity and Inclusion YOUR ANSWERS MUST BE YOUR OWN WORK. If you wish to introduce other sources of information, this must be referenced This workbook meets the following assessment criteria for the unit : Assessment criteria Achieved Date 1.1 Ã¢ËÅ¡ 23/10/13 1.3 Ã¢ËÅ¡ 23/10/13 3.1 Ã¢ËÅ¡ Read MoreEssay on : Promote Equality, Diversity and Inclusion1752 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesTDA 3.6: Promote equality, diversity and inclusion in work with children and young people 1. Be able to promote equality and diversity in work with young people. 1.1 Identify the current legislation and code of practice relevant to the promotion of equality and valuing of diversity. SEN code of practice 2001 This act was created to strengthen the rights of SEN children and their parents to a mainstream education. The act was designed to make a difference to the education of SEN childrenRead MoreThe Importance of Promoting Equality, Diversity and Inclusion in Schools1032 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfollow assessment will have a brief description of the importance of inclusion and inclusive practices in work with children and young people. And it also contains an exploration of how our own attitudes, values and behaviour may lead to that inclusive practice, how to challenge discrimination and how to promote some important anti-discriminatory and inclusive practices. First of all is important to define what is meant by inclusion and inclusive practice. Inclusive practice is a process of identifying
Friday, May 8, 2020
Julius Caesar assignation seemed a bit cruel even for todayÃ¢â¬â¢s day an age. Now what was the reasoning behind the killing? Did people view him as a model politician or a selfish dictator? After reading three excerpts I found that these account were leaning more on the side of Caesar being a selfish dictator rather than a model politician, for the simple fact that the way the events were described leading up to the assignation as being horrible for Rome. After he manipulated his way to consul of Roman Empire he used his oral communication skills to weasel his way into the position as Governor of Gaul, afterwards he started building his empire of wealth and gained knowledge of his military commanding skills fighting the local Germanic tribes of central Europe. Caesar crossing the Rubicon River in 49BC was devastating to the Roman Empire. When Caesar reputation and overall support got back to Pompey, he attempted to declare Julius as an enemy of the state, and that did not sit wel l with Caesar. Upon reaching the Rubicon he had a decision to make weather or not to cross because that was the final sign of treason. This was the workings for the Civil war that took place from January 49 BC to March 46 BC. 300,000 people lost their life in the matter of three years, All because of a man with too big of an ego. So from this point on into the reading I felt as if the authors were implying that the need of the killing, of a man who is willing to risk some many lives for power, in oneShow MoreRelatedI Just Wanna Be Average6008 Words Ã |Ã 25 PagesRichard, Fats Domino, Chuck Berry, the Coasters, and Ernie K. Does mother-in-law, an awful woman who was sent from down below. And so it was that Christy and Cobb and Johnny G. and Tyrrell and I and assorted others picked up along the way passed our days in the back of the bus, a funny mix brought toÃ gether by geography and parental desire. Entrance to school brings with it forms and releases and assessments. Mercy relied on a series of testsÃ¢â¬ ¦for placement, and somehow the results of my tests got confusedRead MoreModern English Macbeth21221 Words Ã |Ã 85 Pages2 About The Author Warren King has been teaching English literature for thirty-five years in English comprehensive and public schools. During the 1980 s he was seconded to the national Shakespeare and Schools project to help develop methods of teaching Shakespeare in the classroom to bring the plays to life for pupils of all ages. After the project ended he continued that work as an adviser in to a London Education Authority, where he worked with teachers in creating Shakespeare projects
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Kodak, which ruled the imaging industry through innovation for more than a century, found itself facing tough times in the early 2000s. The company lost focus by diversifying into many products and also failed to keep in touch with the changing needs of the consumers. Though a pioneer in the digital space, the company failed to take the initiative and capitalize on the digital business due to fear of cannibalizing the existing product lines. We will write a custom essay sample on Kodak Case Study or any similar topic only for you Order Now The company slowly started moving into the digital space but found that it was too late and the competition had become formidable. The company realigned its business model and brought in top executives from outside in a bid to recapture lost ground. | | Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Issues: Ã » Understand the Kodak story. Ã » To analyze how business models have to change over time to keep abreast of the changing consumer tastes. Ã » Analyze the rationale for KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s poor business performance in recent years. Ã » Understand and explore the reasons behind KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s fall. The third quarter of the year 2003 was drawing to an end when iconic brand Eastman Kodak Company (Kodak) decided to shift its focus away from its more than century-old traditional film business to the digital one. The company believed that this shift would boost sales, which had fallen by 5. 14% to US$12. 5 billion in 2002, to US$16 billion by 2006 and further to US$20 billion in 2010. Daniel Allen Ã¢â¬ËDanÃ¢â¬â¢ Carp (Carp), Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the company, said, Ã¢â¬Å"We are acting with the knowledge that demand for traditional products is declining, especially in the developed markets. | | Given this reality, we are moving fast Ã¢â¬â as digital markets demand Ã¢â¬â to transform our business portfolio, with an emphasis on digital commercial markets. Ã¢â¬ According to an industry observer, the shift began in the first quarter of 2003 itself when the company realigned its leadership team and began hiring top leaders with experience in digital technol ogy. However, Kodak witnessed a major leadership shift in April 2003, when Antonio M. Perez (Perez), Corporate Vice President of Hewlett Packard (HP)6, left his 25-year career in HP and joined Kodak as President and Chief Operation Officer (COO). In August 2003, the company announced that it had realigned its operations into five main categories: Commercial Printing, Display Components, Health Imaging, Digital Film Imaging Systems, and Commercial Imaging. Carp said, Ã¢â¬Å"The digital world is full of opportunity for Kodak, and we intend to lead it, as we have led innovation in the imaging industry for more than a century. Ã¢â¬ 7 Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Eastman Kodak CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Journey KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s journey began in April 1880 when George Eastman (Eastman), a junior clerk at Rochester Savings Bank 8, started manufacturing photographic dry-plates9 on the third floor of a building on State Street in Rochester, US. In 1879, before he got into manufacturing, Eastman had invented an emulsion-coating machine which helped in the mass production of dry plates. The commercial production of the dry plates impressed a manufacturer of buggy-whips10 and family friend Henry Alvah Strong (Strong). Strong provided funding support and later, in 1881, Eastman and he formed a partnership under the name Eastman Dry Plate Company. In the same year, Eastman resigned from his junior clerk post to go full time into his business. | | In 1883, he launched films in rolls with a roll holder which was adaptable to nearly every plate camera available in the market at that time. In 1884, the partnership was changed to a US$200,00011 corporation with 14 shareholders. It was renamed as The Eastman Dry Plate and Film Company. Strong and Eastman became president and treasurer of the company respectively. In 1888, with the launch of the Ã¢â¬ËKodakÃ¢â¬â¢ camera with a 100-picture film for US$25 12, Eastman revolutionized photography. To market this product, the company used the slogan Ã¢â¬ËYou press the button, we do the restÃ¢â¬â¢. This invention reinforced the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to bringing photography to the common man at the lowest possible price. The camera proved to be a commercial success. Eastman trademarked the Ã¢â¬ËKodakÃ¢â¬â¢ brand name and the word Kodak was incorporated into the company name. In 1889, the Eastman Photographic Materials Company Limited was incorporated in London, England, to handle the distribution of Kodak products in countries outside the US. In 1891, the company came up with the first daylight loading camera which could be reloaded without the darkroom having to be used. In 1891, the first manufacturing plant outside the US was started at Harrow, England. Before this plant was set up, all the goods were manufactured in Rochester. In 1892, the company was reorganized and renamed as the Eastman Kodak Company. The company introduced the pocket Kodak camera in 1895. In 1896, it crossed the 100,000-mark in camera production. By then, film and photographic paper were being made at the rate of 400 miles a monthÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Challenging Period Right from the 1950s, Kodak faced tough competition from Japanese manufacturers like Fuji in the film business and Olympus Corporation (Olympus), Nikon Corporation (Nikon), Canon Inc. (Canon), and others in the camera market. Kodak, however, continued to develop new pr oducts. In 1975, the company invented the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s first digital camera which could take black and white photos with a resolution of 10,000 pixels (. 01 megapixels) . In 1979, the company developed the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s first viable Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED) material. Kodak kicked off the OLED industry with its reports of the first working OLED devices in 1987Ã¢â¬ ¦ | | Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Kodak(2000-2003) In 2000, Carp, President, Kodak, took on additional charge as CEO. In the same year, the company acquired Lumisys, Inc. , through a stock buy of around US$39 million. On September 26, 2000, InfoTrends Research Group Inc. (InfoTrends) came up with a new report Ã¢â¬Ë2000 Worldwide Digital Camera Forecast SummarÃ¢â¬â¢. According to the report, digital camera sales represented 13% of total camera sales all over the world and North America and Japan were the leading markets with 52% and 23% share respectively in digital camera sales worldwide. The worldwide digital camera market was led by Olympus, Sony, Kodak, and Fuji with a 60% combined unit market shareÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Lessons from Kodak DIVERSIFICATION ISNÃ¢â¬â¢T ALWAYS THE ANSWER To overcome its volatile growth rate, the company decided to diversify into other related but noncore industries. Between the 1980s and the early 1990s, the company tried to diversify into other industries and acquired various companies in different industries. It acquired the copier services business of IBS, a pharmaceuticals company, the medical diagnostics business, computer hardware business, Mass Memory business, and bioscience and lab research firms. However, none of its attempts at diversification were a success. In fact, they increased KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s debt burden. OUTSIDER FOR TOP POSITION Ã¢â¬â IS IT A GOOD IDEA? Kodak had also brought in two CEOs from other industries Ã¢â¬â George Fisher from Motorola and Antonio Perez of Hewlett-Packard. The idea was that a CEO from a different industry would bring in new ideas which would help the company retain its position and business volumes. According to experts, the idea of putting an outsider in the top place did not work out for Kodak as it made the in-house leadership unhappy. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s Strategy for Future Growth In 2003, Kodak unveiled its digital-oriented growth strategy. It believed that its sales would touch US$16 billion and US$20 billion by 2006 and 2010 respectively. To achieve its target, the company realigned its operation and leadership team and hired many top leaders with experience in digital technology to accelerate its growth in the digital space. The company hired Perez, Corporate Vice President of HP, as President and Chief Operating Officer (COO), Yusuke Kojima from Olympus Optical Company, Ltd. (Olympus) as General Manager of the Consumer Digital Camera Business, Bernard Masson from Lexmark International Inc. as President of KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s Display Group, and Daniel Kerpelman from GE Healthcare as Head of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s medical-imaging groupÃ¢â¬ ¦ How to cite Kodak Case Study, Free Case study samples
Monday, April 27, 2020
Jesus And Spirit straightway coming up out of the water, he saw heaven being torn open and the Spirit descending on him like a dove (1:10). This symbolizes the creation of something new of means of the heavens. Another example of this concept emerges from the following line, And a voice came from heaven: You are my beloved Son, whom I love; with you I am well pleased. (1:11). The baptism of Jesus was his attempt at associating himself with his people. It was a means of identification. He shows his intention of the many sacrifices he would make for us in this time. Jesus begins to see the Spirit in a new way. He now realizes the potential of its power. Jesus maintains great obedience towards God. Mark shows how Jesus was repeatedly tempted and pressured straightway coming up out of the water, he saw heaven being torn open and the Spirit descending on him like a dove (1:10). This symbolizes the creation of something new of means of the heavens. Another example of this concept emerges from the following line, And a voice came from heaven: You are my beloved Son, whom I love; with you I am well pleased. (1:11). Science Essays
Thursday, March 19, 2020
Feminism essays Why is gender so important? I think, the simplest answer is, because its there. There are two genders, which we call female and male and there are many distinctions between them. People generally afraid of talking about gender because many of them think that the talking would be end about feminism. Then why are they afraid of feminism? Because, these people think that feminism states, women are good, men are bad. And there are several myths about it. People believe that; feminists are man haters, they are lesbians, they want to bring men down and take over, etc. However, all of us should know that, Feminism is a policy, practice or advocacy of political, economic and social equality of women and the people who advocate this, are feminists. (www.milwaukeenow.org) So it can be understood from here that feminists are not against men, they just want to have equal rights. Feminism has been a prominent and controversional topic in writings for the past two centuries. One of the most important work of contemporary feminist theory is, Simone de Beauvoirs book The Second Sex. Lets mention the aim of the book with her words: For a long time I hesitated to write a book on woman. The subject is irritating, especially, to women and it is not new. Enough ink has been spilled in quarreling over feminism and perhaps we should say no more about it. It is still talked about, however, for the voluminous nonsense uttered during the last century seems to have done little to illuminate the problem. After all, is there a problem? And if so, what is it? Are there women really? (www.marxist.org) In this essay, Ill discuss the reasons why de Beauvoir criticizes woman and her opinions about the improvement of the womans position in society. If we observe woman and man, from past to now, well see that they do not have any common feat ...
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
The Geology of Bricks The common brick is one of our greatest inventions, an artificial stone. Brickmaking transforms low-strength mud into strong materials that can endure for centuries when properly cared for. Clay Bricks The main ingredient of bricks is clay, a group of surface minerals that arise from the weathering of igneous rocks. By itself, clay is not useless- making bricks of plain clay and drying them in the sun makes a sturdy building stone. Having some sand in the mix helps keep these bricks from cracking. Sundried clay is little different from soft shale. Many of the most ancient buildings in the early Middle East were made of sun-dried bricks. These generally lasted about a generation before the bricks deteriorated from neglect, earthquakes or the weather. With old buildings melted into piles of clay, the ancient cities were periodically levelled and new cities built on top. Over the centuries these city mounds, called tells, grew to considerable size. Making sun-dried bricks with a little straw or dung helps bind the clay and yields the equally ancient product called adobe. Fired Bricks The ancient Persians and Assyrians made stronger bricks by roasting them in kilns. The process takes several days, raising the temperature above 1000 Ã °C for a day or so, then cooling gradually. (This is much hotter than the mild roasting or calcination used to make top dressing for baseball fields.) The Romans advanced the technology, as they did with concrete and metallurgy, and spread fired brick to every part of their empire. Brickmaking has been basically the same ever since. Until the 19th century, every locality with a clay deposit built its own brickworks because transport was so expensive. With the rise of chemistry and the Industrial Revolution, bricks joined steel, glass and concrete as sophisticated building materials. Today brick is made in many formulations and colors for a variety of demanding structural and cosmetic applications. Chemistry of Brick Firing Over the period of firing, brick clay becomes a metamorphic rock. Clay minerals break down, release chemically bound water, and change into a mixture of two minerals, quartz and mullite. The quartz crystallizes very little in that time, remaining in a glassy state. The key mineral is mullite (3AlO3 Ã · 2SiO2), a blended compound of silica and alumina that is quite rare in nature. It is named for its occurrence on the Isle of Mull in Scotland. Not only is mullite hard and tough, but it also grows in long, thin crystals that function like the straw in adobe, binding the mix in an interlocking grip. Iron is a lesser ingredient that oxidizes into hematite, accounting for the red color of most bricks. Other elements including sodium, calcium and potassium help the silica melt more easily- that is, they act as a flux. All of these are natural parts of many clay deposits. Is There Natural Brick? Earth is full of surprises- consider the natural nuclear reactors that once existed in Africa- but could it naturally produce true brick? There are two kinds of contact metamorphism to consider. First, what if very hot magma or erupted lava engulfed a body of dried clay in a way that allows the moisture to escape? I would give three reasons that rule this out: 1. Lavas are rarely as hot as 1100 Ã °C.2. Lavas would cool quickly once they engulf surface rocks.3. Natural clays and buried shales are wet, which would draw even more heat from lava. The only igneous rock with enough energy to even have a chance to fire proper brick would be the superhot lava known as komatiite, thought to have reached 1600 Ã °C. But the Earths interior has not reached that temperature since the Early Proterozoic Era more than 2 billion years ago. And at that time there was no oxygen in the air, making the chemistry even more unlikely. On the Isle of Mull, mullite appears in mudstones that have been baked in lava flows. (It also has been found in pseudotachylites, where friction on faults heats dry rock to melting.) These are probably a far cry from real brick, but you should go there yourself to make sure. Second, what if an actual fire could bake the right kind of sandy shale? In fact, that does happen in coal country. Forest fires can start coal beds burning, and once started these coal-seam fires may go on for centuries. Sure enough, shale overlying coal fires can turn into a red clinkery rock thats close enough to true brick. Unfortunately, this occurrence has become common as human-caused fires start in coal mines and culm piles. A significant fraction of global greenhouse-gas emissions arises from coal fires. Today we outdo nature in this obscure geochemical stunt.